Complete Study Guide for 2010 English 2 Final


The rules for capitalizing titles are strict. In a title or a subtitle, capitalize the first word, the last word,

and all principal words, including those that follow hyphens in compound terms. Therefore,

capitalize the following parts of speech:

• Nouns (e.g., flowers and Europe, as in The Flowers of Europe)

• Pronouns (e.g., our, as in Save Our Children; that, as in The Mouse That Roared)

• Verbs (e.g., watches, as in America Watches Television: is, as in What Is Literature?)

• Adjectives (e.g., ugly, as in The Ugly Duckling: that, as in Who Said That Phrase?)

• Adverbs (e.g., slightly, as in Only Slightly Corrupt: down, as in Go Down, Moses)

• Subordinating conjunctions (e.g., after, although, as if, as soon as, because, before, if,

that, unless, until, when, where, while, as in One If by Land and Anywhere That Chance


Do not capitalize the following parts of speech when they fall in the middle of a title:

• Articles (a. an. the, as in Under the Bamboo Tree)

• Prepositions (e.g., against, between, in, of, to, as in The Merchant of Venice and A

Dialogue between the Soul and Body

• Coordinating conjunctions (and, but, for, nor, or, so, yet, as in Romeo and Juliet)

• The to in infinitives (as in How to Play Chess)

Use a colon and a space to separate a title from a subtitle, unless the title ends in a question mark,

an exclamation point, or a dash. Include other punctuation only if it is part of the title.

The following examples illustrate how to capitalize and punctuate a variety of titles.

Death of a Salesman

The Teaching of Spanish in English-Speaking Countries

Storytelling and Mythmaking: Images from Film and Literature

Life As I Find It

The Artist as Critic

What Are You Doing in My Universe?

Whose Music? A Sociology of Musical Language

The Importance of Being Earnest

It’s a Wonderful Life

The Future Fair: A Fair for Everybody



Adjectives add information about nouns or pronouns. They come before the word they are giving information about. Adverbs add information to verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. Most, but not all, adverbs end in -ly (clearly, happily), but some common adjectives also end in -ly (friendly, lively). Adjectives explain what kind or which one. Example: Which dress did she wear? She wore the pretty dress. (Pretty is an adjective adding information to the noun dress. Adverbs explain how something is done. How did she work? She worked well. )


Verbs of the senses (taste, smell, feel, look) are usually followed by an adjective, but they can be used as action verbs. Examples: The perfume expert smells well. (The expert is actively using his nose, so the adverb well must be used.) The flowers smell good. (The flowers aren’t using their noses, so an adjective is used.)


Sentence Types

            simple = subjects have only one verb or verbs have only one subject

                           ex: Tom and Bill played.

                                  Tom played and sang.

            compound = comma and FANBOYS word or a semicolon join together two sentences

                                  ex: Tom played, and Bill sang.

                                         Tom played; Bill sang.

                                    FANBOYS = for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so

            complex = subordinating conjunction joins together two sentences

                              ex: While Tom played, Bill sang.

                                     Bill sang while Tom played.

            compound-complex = While Tom played, Bill sang, and Sally laughed.


Steps of the Persuasive Speech

1. Attention step – get listener’s attention

2. Need step – give listener reasons to listen; explain what problem or need you can help them with

3. Satisfaction step – tell listener how to get rid of their problem or satisfy their need

4. Visualization step – let listener see how your solution will work

5. Action step – tells listener what to do to get started on using your solution



betrayal = disloyalty                                            

devastate = destroy                                            

discordant = horrible sound

fiasco = failure                                                   

indignity = loss of honor                                      

lament = grief                                                    

prodigy = young person with a great talent

ream = measurement = 500 sheets                      

reproach = blame                                               

reverie = daydream                                            

denouement = end or resolution of a story            

climax = the part of the story where the tension is most intense   

rising action = increasing tension in a story

falling action = decreasing tension in a story          d. are established

exposition =  the beginning of a story where setting and mood     

waif = a stray person or animal ; especially : a homeless child or orphan

conflagration = fire ; especially : a large disastrous fire

farce = ridiculous or empty show or mockery

pious = showing loyal reverence for a person or thing

abyss = an immeasurably deep gulf or great space

invectives: insulting or abusive words
sages: wise people
lucidity: clearness of thought

harangue: yell at; scold
veritable:  real